The following is posted about datum changes with the permission of the author, David DeLong, who is a ASME GD&T Professional (GDTP) at Quality Management Services, Inc.
Datum Changes to ASME Y14.5 – 2009
Under ASME Y14.5-2009, Maximum Material Condition (MMC) can now apply to datums that are features of size and also surfaces. The 94 standard would only allow MMC on datums that were features of size and NOT surfaces.
A feature of size is a hole or pin of any shape and also a width. In most cases in GD&T, the holes or pins are most important to assembly and are used a great deal as secondary and tertiary datums. Usually, the perimeter of a non-cylindrical part is not functionally important. There are certain cases where there may be a partial hole or cutout that is used in assembly and could now be referenced as a datum.
Maximum Material Boundary
The Maximum Material Boundary (MMB) is a new term used in the 2009 standard and replaces the terms “Maximum Material Condition” and also “Virtual Condition Size” when referring to a datums referenced with the maximum material condition symbol.
Let’s review the MMB for datum G in the above example.
If datum G was referenced as a primary datum, the MMB would be the MMC size of the hole which would be the smallest allowable size of the 12 mm hole which is 11.6 mm. It does not make any difference whether or not the feature actually has a virtual condition size as shown, the MMB is still 11.6 mm..
In our example, datum G is referenced at MMC as a secondary datum so the MMB is 12 – 0.4 – 0.2 = 11.4 mm which is the virtual condition size of the hole. If the secondary datum did not have a virtual condition size, it would default to its maximum material condition size of 11.6.
Datum H Reviewed
If datum H was referenced as a primary datum, the MMB would be its maximum material condition size or smallest allowable size – 8.6 mm.
The positional tolerance shown would give us a virtual condition diametrical tolerance zone size of 9 – 0.4 (MMC) – 0.3 (perpendicularity) = 8.3 mm.
So, if datum H was referenced as a secondary datum, one would use the perpendicularity refinement resulting in a MMB of 9 – 0.4 – 0.2 (perpendicularity) = 8.4 mm.
We have already discussed that fact that the MMB changes depending upon whether it is a primary, secondary or tertiary datum. If there is any doubt about the MMB, one can reflect the actual MMB size in the feature control frame as shown above using brackets about the MMB size. This method can also be used if MMB size differs from the calculated size.
Let’s say we wanted the MMB size of datum H to be its refinement size of 8.4. One would then replace the 8.3 in the feature control frame with the refined size of 8.4 and that superseded the calculated MMB size.
For further details, please see the full article at Datums 2009.
Also in Dimensions and Tolerances
- Dual Dimensioning and ASME Y14.5M-1994
- Dimensioning of Slots in SOLIDWORKS for ASME Y14.5
- It’s All Over!
- Interpretation of Limits (ASME)
- Controlled Radius
- Datum Changes in ASME Y14.5-2009
- Rounding of numbers
- How to dimension feature patterns on drawings